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Information About the Dodecanese Islands Archaeological Sites
It is the islandâ€™s most important sight. Placed on Horaâ€™s loftiest point, on the remains of the islandâ€™s ancient acropolis and of the byzantine castle, it was initially constructed by Giovanni I Querini in 1207 and completed by Giovanni IV Zanachi Querini in 1413.
The castle offered protection, which resulted in an increase of its population, reaching 4,000 inhabitants. The densely built castle with the narrow, cobblestone alleys also included two towers, one on the gate where the feudal owners resided and one with four storeys on the south side, the so-called "Sarai". The abandonment of the castle began in 1830, when piracy was no longer a threat and by 1948 it was completely deserted.
In Chochlakoylia near Seneschal Michail and Gabriil, three graves have been found that are maintained in good condition. This group of graves dates back to the 5th or 6th century A.D. and are crafted from soft, porous, volcanic rocks.
The Medieval Town of Rhodes is the fortified part of the Old Town and is one of the most important historic monuments in Greece. It is also unique in that it is teeming with life â€“ some 6,000 people live and work there. The medieval character was given to the town by the Knights Hospitallers, who erected new buildings and fortifications of post-Gothic style, while in the late 15th and early 16th centuries they were influenced by the Italian Renaissance.
Ialyssos was one of the three ancient cities of Rhodes, along with Kameiros and Lindos. Apparently, it has been settled ever since prehistoric times. The archeological site, which includes remains of ancient Ialyssos, stretches around the hills of Filerimos, where the acropolis is, bearing elements of various building phases (ancient, Byzantine and knightsâ€™ era). The temple of Polias Athena is significant as much as it is impressive, dating back to the 3rd-2nd century B.C. when it replaced an older temple of the classic era (5th century B.C.).
One of the most important castles of the Byzantine period, repaired in the Knightsâ€™ period, is the one above Megalo Horio. During antiquity there was a Hellenistic acropolis in the same spot, traces of which can be seen on the lower parts of the walls and especially in the main gate and the perimeter. In some places even polygonal constructions can be discerned, dating from the Archaic period. A series of stone steps after the gate leads to the spot where there was probably a temple dedicated to Pythios Apollo and Poliada Athena. In its place now stands the temple of Taxiarchis, built in the post-Byzantine period with interesting remnants of murals of the 15th-17th century. Under the castle in the south slope of the hill, there are remnants of the ancient settlement. It is dated around the 4th century B.C. and considered one of the most important Doric settlements yet discovered.
Palaiokastro was the acropolis of ancient Nisyros and dates from the 4th century B.C. Of the large fort with the seven turrets that Palaiokastro once was, only a fraction remains. The walls of the enceinte, among the best preserved of the era, are classified as Cyclopean or Pelasgian. The rock that was used for the great blocks of the wall is called basaltic andesite. It is one of the hardest and heaviest rocks in the world and is abundant in the southwest part of the island. Apart from the transportation of the gigantic blocks, the tremendous feat of transporting these blocks and their immaculate fitting (still preserved to this day) by the artisans of the time never ceases to intrigue archaeologists.
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